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POC: The Universal "Automaton" : An example of a Universal Automaton: ROBOTICS AS IN Hospital Sector –Om Lalchandani

Pandemic like Covid-19 has once again highlighted the need to accelerate the companies, especially in healthcare to adopt automation. Countless doctors, nurses and health care workers have risked, are currently risking and may continue to risk their precious lives, while tending the dependents. Countless families have suffered as their lone bread winner succumbed to a risky act while tending Corona virus affected patients. The paper suggests that it is high time now that companies delegate the risky tasks to robots. The industry is currently in version 4.0, which is digitalization, and a universal need is felt to accelerate the companies towards adopting automation. Whilst automation is the next version in industrialization of the world, the question still arises as to whether state-of-art technologies are available to usher the companies towards the new era of automation or not. There are innumerable researches on Robotics and even the kids are being prepared to construct a robot at some places. However, seems to be aimless proliferation of robotics undertaking the ordinary or cliché jobs so much so that the whole activity appears clichéd. It is high time that a focused research is undertaken to construct a universal robot that can help to make robots that are secure, harmless to humans and replace preferably risky tasks. This will not only prepare the world in moving in right direction, but would also ensure safety and security of human race as the automation could be directed to replace only the risky tasks. This work is therefore aimed at constructing a universal “Automaton” to understand any requirement and assist in creating safe and secure robots with the help of 3D Printers. A prototype to this effect was developed and is available for further research and development in this area.

 - A prototype and the paper has been submitted to ministries for approval
-----Om Lalchandani.

A Concept Paper was already submitted to this effect in the International Coference hosted by ICTCS in 2020. Details of the paper published by Springer goes as hereunder:

Robots and artificial intelligence: An aid to dependent people ABSTRACT In the world of digitalization and automation, there were surprising myths co-existent that were not only surprising, but also ironic. Whilst the move is on to usher into the world of automation, where even the manufacturing units are devising the methods to automate their functions, it is only ironic to note that people have also developed several myths on using a robot. For one, robot has been associated with a device that would take away one job. For another, robot is considered risky as if it will start ruling the very person that made it. Apparently, research gap exists that needs to be plugged along with the understanding gaps to demystify the use of robots. Covid-19 has brought the world to such a stage where companies are now rethinking about the use of robot. This paper is written to demystify the use on robots, clarify the need of robots in the society and present the growing demand of this technology. A research was also conducted to present the availability and state-of-art robot technology. It was also shown in the paper as to how some domains like healthcare is in dire need of robots, as the pandemic continues to wreak havoc on society. Keywords: Robots, Artificial intelligence, dependent people, TIAGo Introduction We often see robots and artificial intelligence systems as intruders who can steal jobs from us or make decisions against humans. However, the truth is that these devices are already helping to improve people's lives. For example, these have been shown to be effective in support tasks for people with disabilities. These robots are already playing a vital role in the services to the elderly people who have developed some disabilities or the rehabilitation of patients with injuries. Robots are also being deployed for patients with the chronic pathologies. Besides, robots have been used in heavy industries where the working conditions are extreme like working near the furnaces. This deployment has is already saving human lives. Robot is the most 'human' side of artificial intelligence. Dependent People Dependent people are those who have developed a health conditions or exist with a condition that makes them in the need of others help. For example, old people or people with special needs or people who have developed a health condition, which makes them dependent on help and support of care takers. One special example on today’s context are people who have contracted the pandemic disease of Covid-19. The diseases is such infectious that if someone contacts this disease, the person is immediately quarantined in a hospital. In such case, the subject is completely dependent on all day-to-day need on the caretakers. In effect, the caretaker is able to provide only limited support as the caretakers are also at grave risk of contracting such disease. This means that the scenario is already set to take the technology in health care domain to the next level, where a device like robot may give such a risky care. Today, as the statistics reveal, almost 20 per cent of the worldwide population may be living in a stage where they might heavily depend on others. Such dependency has to be taken-up by a robot, and once again the society needs a dire and immediate help from technology. Robots and AI immediately needed Robots are the devices, which automate some human action with the help of some intelligence built-in for their operations. This intelligence simulates human intelligence, at least to some level. Such intelligence, which has been artificially built by developers, is termed as artificial intelligence. Robots, powered by such artificial intelligence can help people who are severely dependent on others. Imagine old person, who is left with no one to help and lives in a condition that makes him almost impossible to get-up from the bed to fulfill some daily needs. Arguably, there is no solution better than placing a robot to help such a person who cannot even get-up to fill water for himself. In other case, many people who have contracted Covid-19 disease and are quarantined and caretakers are very cautious in dealing with them. Pandemic has almost certainly proved the immediate need of large number of robots to be acquired by any health care center. 1. TIAGo Robot helping people with condition It is now not unknown that countless people with a medical condition are employing robots to help them. Earlier there were joint families where old people or people with some condition or disability were helped by their relative. Nowadays, old people or people who have developed a condition have no option but to live all alone. This is so as the trend nowadays is to live in nuclear families or even as single parent or elementary families. Frequently, few people find themselves living all alone. In that case, they either employ a nurse or a helper, but, as their physical condition is challenge, it leaves them to the complete mercy of such helpers. There have been security issues reported (Pages, Marchionni & Ferro, 2016). Fortunately, in the age of digitalization and automation, as the industries are preparing to enter into industry 5.0 – automation, there are devices like TIAGoRobot, to help those who have a medical condition or certain disability. TIAGois now available to lend a hand in whatever it takes. The device has one arm and no feet but a round base that turns and rolls on the ground. It has a face, somewhat similar to what one saw in the sci-fi movies Wall.E's and ET's, where a smile is always drawn. TIAGorobot is an acronym that means 'Take It And Go!' and is able to help with household chores to an elderly person, or a severe disability, who lives alone at home.And not only that -- through its optical sensor, this robot can know how that person is and communicate with them to ask what they need at all times. A nurse can monitor the person from a distance to provide simple care for that person and thus avoid having to travel to the health center. Sometimes, it is only necessary for someone to be aware that no accident happens to the subject when that person goes to a place like bathroom. Some patients would not mind even if a device accompanies them to certain places, whereas they would have discomfort if a person like nurse accompanies then to washroom, especially if they have severe disabilities. This is how the TIAGo robot can be programmed to help and is even capable of placing a blanket well on the bed at night if the subject happens to be uncovered (Mocanu, et. al. 2018). TIAGo is very much there in the market and it is a great news for many. The models are manufactured by PAL Robotics, a leading company in robotics applied to assistance to people with various medical conditions. Robot can support to subjects suffering from sight, hearing impairment or disability in ambulation as well as other medical conditions like Alzheimer's disease. The latter psychological conditions develops in many old people, who appear to be normal but actually are severely limited. They need someone to keep reminding them of simple things as they get increasingly forgetful. Judith Viladomat, Head of Communication, explains that the company's mission is precisely that robots can improve people's lives in different aspects. “One of them is helping elderly or disabled people with household chores. If a robot can do these tasks, the lives of these people improve.” (Lafrenz, 2017). Goal of Robotics to help growing population of elderly people in the society Statistics indicated that the elderly population is growing gradually. Health care has improved a lot, as there is cure for several diseases that were incurable a few decades ago. There is cure for cancer and other deadly diseases, which is responsible for increasing the average life expectancy. Life expectancy is increasing as a result of healthcare improvement, which indicates that the elderly population will grow a lot in the coming decades. However, it will be increasingly difficult to reach all the people who need some human means or intervention. Companies like PAL Robotics are now increasingly aware of this horizon. “There are many studies that say that there will not be enough resources in long-term care to provide assistance to everyone in a dignified and quality way. That is why robotics is entering this field,” says Viladomat(Lafrenz, 2017). The Robotics companies also do not believe that robots will conflict with caregivers, as there are a lot of things that a human being contributes that a robot cannot supply. Their goal is not to make robot friends that have intelligence and simulate the emotions or feelings, just like a human being. There object is to make tools with the ability to interact with the environment and help people who have limiting conditions using advanced concepts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML). With this development, robots are going to fill jobs that may involve physical risk for nurses or caregivers (Grama&Rusu, 2019). As we are in the age of Covid-19, one can imagine the potential of robots. They can save countless lives of caregivers, as for sure the Covid-19 virus cannot affect a robot. These can interact in close vicinity with the patient without risking the lives of countless caregivers. Incidentally, the statistics reports that many precious lives of health care workers like those of nurses were lost or affected by Covid-19 as their job was just to work closely with patients. They had to help the patients with severe infection like providing them life support or helping them in their chores. On the other hand, a robot can be trained or programmed to work closely with a patient like providing them ordinary things like medicine dosages, water, or any other similar activity. Robots also help in lifting a lot of weight like reclining beds and they will always be controlled by one person. In addition, robots can have a wide spectrum of vision and detect things that a person is not able to see(Lafrenz, 2017).. 2. Robotics Development Several Robotics companies now predict that in a matter of five years they will see “TIAGos” in private homes. In a longer period of time humanoids will also enter the scene. Humanoids are also termed sometimes as bipedal robots, with an anatomy and stature similar to those of the human beings. With the help of AI/ML based programming, these devices will be able to adapt one hundred percent to the external environment where they would work. These would be designed according to human anatomy and biology. Currently the development of humanoids is being slower than that of other models due to navigation and displacement problems. 3. Hand-made The main burden for integrating robots into people's daily lives is their high price. Many Robotics models are handcrafted in-house and very few units are made commercially. This brings the price of the most basic TIAGo model to 30,000 euros and the most complete ones to 60,000 Euros. In the case of humanoids, the cost may be between 150,000 to 900,000 Euros. Currently, there is still no demand for this kind of technology, but once people try it and see that it is useful, they will be marketed to end users, and not just to university R&D departments, etc. Robotics companies as of now are completely convinced, as it happened with the automobiles or the computers, that when the demand increases and they are mass manufactured for commercial purposes, they would come at an affordable price. A robot will cost the same as a car. However, for this, it is necessary that fears and prejudices towards robots that come from the plots of science fiction novels and films, must disappear. Growing fear as developed by some science fiction or myths about robotsderives an apprehension when a subject meets his or her robot for the first time. Thus, as the subject meets for the first time the robotic assistant, it is inevitable that this strangeness appears mixed with a certain fear. At first, some older people don't like it. However, it happens only in the first moment: when they see what it can and cannot do, the limits it has and how they can control it, these fears disappear. Robots are machines, they are programmed by people and depend on them, and just like other machines like cars or fans or any other devices to make our lives easier, robots help people and there is no reason to fear them. 4. Rehabilitation robots At the National Hospital for Paraplegics in Toledo, there are two robots that carry out their work every day normally. These are the Locomat, which adhere to the legs of the spinal cord injured to help them in their rehabilitation march. “They have been involved in the rehabilitation of people for 10 years now. It is one more treatment, as is physiotherapy, occupational therapy, etc,” explains Antonio del Ama, head of the Biomechanics and Technical Aids Unit at the hospital(del-Ama,, 2014). In addition, in the center there are three units of another type of ambulatory robot for gait compensation (del-Ama,, 2014). “We are investigating its effectiveness in the rehabilitation of patients. They were built with the idea that the patient would take them home and do their daily life with them, but they are also attracting a lot of attention as rehabilitators,”says Del Ama (Torricelli, 2015). 5. Exoskeletons help in the rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries Before the appearance of the Locomat, the intensive repetition of the gait movement, which the patient must do as a fundamental therapy for his or her rehabilitation, was an immense effort for physiotherapists. The patients were placed on a treadmill, supported from above with a harness. Two physiotherapists moved his legs manually while another held his body. After 10-15 minutes, the physiotherapists were physically exhausted (del-Ama,, 2014). Now thanks to these robots, the movement can be repeated for hours. The limit is not the fatigue of the physiotherapists but the fatigue of the patient.There is false fear that their jobs will be taken away, but it is a paradigm shift (Torricelli, 2015). This leads the person in charge of the Biomechanics Unit to make the following reflection: “AI and robotics are usually seen as a threat. There are those who fear that jobs will be taken away from us, but in my opinion, what occurs is a paradigm shift. It does not make sense that there are three physiotherapists moving the legs of a patient when there is a robot that can do it and those three professionals may be treating other patients” (Frizera,, 2012).Del Ama affirms that there are more and more people with disabilities, and we must give the best possible service to all. "In this area, to the extent that robots and machines can help us to carry out automated processes, we will be able to serve more patients with the same staff, and also have better control over therapy," he says (Torricelli, 2015). The drawback of these systems, according to Del Ama, is their "excessively expensive" price (del-Ama,, 2014). Something that the head of the Biomechanics Unit attributes to the fact that the application of robotics in this area is still in a very incipient phase: “It is something that is being born now. In order to implement one of these treatments, it is necessary to show from the scientific point of view that it is really positive for the patient and to know well all its effects ” (Torricelli, 2015). While the research phase lasts, the demand for these devices will be irrelevant and, consequently, the prices will continue to be exorbitant. But in the long term, everything indicates that robots will end up being regular human cooperators in a multitude of tasks and a very useful tool to respond to the needs of dependent people(Frizera,, 2012). 6. AI as neurological therapy JosepLluís Arcos, from the Artificial Intelligence Research Institute (CSIC) is in charge of three of the most advanced machine learning projects applied to cognitive stimulation and rehabilitation. The Innobrain and Cognitio projects benefit people with degenerative diseases, while Amate helps people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to show their emotions (Arcos, De Mantaras& Serra, 1998).Arcos assures that a large number of AI and machine learning projects are emerging in the area of neurology that, although they are in an incipient phase, are already beginning to show great potential. “There are projects that, by exploiting GPS technology, allow people with neurodegenerative diseases to be given more autonomy by monitoring their movements and helping in the event of disorientation or loss,” explains the researcher (Plaza, Arcos, & Martin, 1996). On the other hand, the Amate project arises from the need to develop technologies that help families and therapists in the day-to-day life of children with ASD and to solve one of the problems they present is the difficulty to identify their emotions as for example the stress that an unexpected situation can cause you (Sierra, 204). “We are using wristbands with biometric sensors such as movement and changes in conductivity of the skin,” says the IIIA researcher, who continues: “Our system incorporates machine learning algorithms that allow us to customize the identification of behaviors, and their meaning, to each child. In other words, after a few hours of initial training, the system is capable of adapting to the needs of each child.” (Arcos & de Mántaras, 1997). 7. Robots for Covid-19 and other Pandemics As in science fiction, the coronavirus pandemic has made the interaction between humans and robots natural today and even more so when the best barrier to contagion is to avoid social contact. “The pandemic opens the eyes of organizations to realize that robots are required to avoid one-on-one contact,” said Aldo Luévano, CEO of Roomie, the Mexican engineering firm that developed the robot.Luévano explained that with the support of large technology companies they seek to demonstrate that the development of this type of technology and the implementation of robotics is possible in Mexico and that is why they developed, in just two weeks, a robot capable of helping in the diagnosis of coronavirus (Mario, 2020). The company worked with two infectologists and relied on technology from Intel, which provides artificial intelligence and processing solutions to analyze large amounts of data, and from Amazon Web Services, which provides the cloud, machine learning and the analysis and identification of people and places through Amazon Rekognition(Mario, 2020). Luévano explained that the company has been in Mexico for six years developing humanoid robots for assistance in sectors such as tourism, retail and banks and that the pandemic gave them the opportunity to create a robot to help public and private medical institutions to serve possible cases of patients with coronavirus. “The robot is programmed to perform hospital triage," he said. However, he said he does not seek and cannot make a diagnosis, he only guides people to know if they are suspected of suffering from coronavirus(Mario, 2020). Discussion Need of robots have been increasingly felt, not only by companies, but also society. As the robots have gradually entered the market, companies, homes and even commercial places, the myths related to robots are being shattered. The myths that the robots are going to take jobs, or that robots would be security threats are now being rejected as a myth. Many science fiction movies are responsible to establish the myths and some of them are so weird that they claim that ultimately robots may rule society. The state-of-art of development of robot is still in the nascent stage. There are only specific areas where robots are proving helpful like providing a helping hand to people who are dependent on others for their daily chores. Covid-19 has sealed the issue in favor of robots. Many caretakers have contracted the deadly disease while treating Covid patients. Caretakers like nurses have to give all-round service for extended hours. Some nurses contracted the disease and risked their lives especially as a robot can easily carry such activities. For example, a robot can be present at the hospital and provide services like taking temperature, providing medicine doses, providing helping hand to patients in their miscellaneous need during their quarantine states, and most importantly relieve nurses with some of their utmost busiest schedules. Arguably, robots are the best way to serve people who are living with some physical or mental condition that makes them constantly dependent on others. This is especially true if a person also has no alternative but to live alone and in that case, it is also being regarded as best for the safety and security of the person living alone. Robot is programmed to do just the specific activity and will not have enough “brains” to plot some mischief. Moreover, the company who supplies robot can also remotely monitor the robot functioning and would work ethically and in a responsible manner. A pandemic to develop robots The Roomiebot Covid-19 is equipped with technologies to detect possible cases of coronavirus and that is why it was developed in conjunction with two infectologists.Luévano explained that this tool comes equipped with a thermometer and an oximeter that allows the detection of dyspnea, or shortness of breath, a common condition among patients with the disease.The idea, he said, is not to replace medical personnel, but to streamline the process of caring for potential patients. With this tool, he explained, what is sought is to avoid the collapse of medical institutions due to lack of personnel by letting the first line of contact be a robot that, in case of detecting symptoms in a patient, can channel it effectively. The robot is capable of identifying symptoms such as cough, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, odynophagia, rhinorrhea, conjunctivitis and chest pain and can also obtain demographic or clinical data to identify patients at increased risk for pre-existing diseases. Roomie Robot will reach hospitals The need to avoid contact between people is required so as not to generate more infections. These types of models also help in the disinfection of spaces such as hospitals or workplaces, in the delivery of packages or in the support of information without human contact, minimizing the risk. “From issues of delivery (distribution) of medicines and meals, to issues of robots that can count responses, you need to have use cases and contactless technology (payment without cash)," he said.Now, the media has also been pro-active to highlight the keys that stop Covid-19 in the countries. One key measure to stop the further spread is the use of robots. Conclusion The health care experts have not stressed that at this time somemedical firms do have the capacity to deploy hundreds of robots that can be used in hospitals, companies and airports, and it is expected that in about few weeks they will have a presence in at least some hospitals and other facilities. The experts also explained that in the case of robots like TIAGo Robot and Roomiebot Covid-19, the firms are willing to operate in the joint venture model, in which the medical institutions cover some expenses for the robot's raw material to allow its use and impact to expand rapidly. They have noted that while the investment cost is high, this will never be compared to the value of a human life.Robots came not to replace humans but, in this type of pandemic, but they give value to people. References Arcos, J. L., De Mantaras, R. L., & Serra, X. (1998). Saxex: A case‐based reasoning system for generating expressive musical performances. Journal of New Music Research, 27(3), 194-210. Arcos, J. L., & de Mántaras, R. L. (1997, July). Perspectives: a declarative bias mechanism for case retrieval. In International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning (pp. 279-290). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. (Mario, 2020). Mexican robot is a useful tool in the battle against the coronavirus. Burgeron Report. Retrieved from del-Ama, A. J., Gil-Agudo, Á., Pons, J. L., & Moreno, J. C. (2014). Hybrid gait training with an overground robot for people with incomplete spinal cord injury: a pilot study. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8, 298. Frizera, A., Elias, A., Del-Ama, A. J., Ceres, R., & Bastos, T. F. (2012, June). Characterization of spatio-temporal parameters of human gait assisted by a robotic walker. In 2012 4th IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob) (pp. 1087-1091). IEEE. Grama, L., &Rusu, C. (2019, October). Extending Assisted Audio Capabilities of TIAGo Service Robot. In 2019 International Conference on Speech Technology and Human-Computer Dialogue (SpeD) (pp. 1-8). IEEE. Lafrenz, R. Archive 2017. Mocanu, I., Axinte, D., Cramariuc, O., &Cramariuc, B. (2018, July). Human Activity Recognition with Convolution Neural Network Using TIAGo Robot. In 2018 41st International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP) (pp. 1-4). IEEE. Pages, J., Marchionni, L., & Ferro, F. (2016, October). Tiago: the modular robot that adapts to different research needs. In International workshop on robot modularity, IROS. Plaza, E., Arcos, J. L., & Martin, F. (1996). Cooperative case-based reasoning. In Distributed Artificial Intelligence Meets Machine Learning Learning in Multi-Agent Environments (pp. 180-201). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Sierra, C., Rodriguez-Aguilar, J. A., Noriega, P., Esteva, M., & Arcos, J. L. (2004). Engineering multi-agent systems as electronic institutions. European Journal for the Informatics Professional, 4(4), 33-39. Torricelli, D., Del Ama, A. J., Gonzalez, J., Moreno, J., Gil, A., & Pons, J. L. (2015, July). Benchmarking lower limb wearable robots: Emerging approaches and technologies. In Proceedings of the 8th ACM International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments (pp. 1-4).

Paper Submitted as a universal ideal "Shri Rama"
Accepted by Fourth International Ramayana Conference organised by Shri Ram Charit Bhavan, USA on 23-25 April 2021.

 SHRI RAMA, THE UNIVERSAL IDEAL!! Abstract Blessed aspirants! May the grace of Shri Ramachandra be with you all! In this paper, the learning from Ramayana has been illuminated and its relevance to virtuous management has been advocated. Lord Shri Rama lived human life in the most practical way possible in its different aspects of social relationships firmly established in the Dharma, through His well-regulated personality and highly refined conduct. An ideal life, whether corporate or personal, can be lived on earth by following the guidance of this glorious leader of humanity, the true representative of the Supreme Divinity who manifested himself for the benefit of all subsequent generations. The Ramayana teaches one to lead a true life as it helps one to practice and spread the virtues that adorned the person of Shri Rama. The teachings of Ramayana help one to rise beyond himself or herself and tune mind accordingly. The descent of the grace of the teachings of Ramayana potentially helps one to rise from a mere manager to a transformational leader. This transformation can really be achieved through the teachings. In Ramayana, there is a striking panorama of hope and despair, sacred idealism and worldly delusion, sacrifice and desolation, attack of weakness and tragedy, magnanimous dedication to virtue and humble devotion, steadfastness and fortitude, triumph over the evil and glory of victory. Keywords Ramayana, Shri Ramachandra, Transformational Leadership, Dharma, Adharma, Universal Ideal Introduction Shri Rama, the ideal of goodness, mercy, benevolence and divine life on earth, was revealed to destroy the forces of Adharma, to protect and establish Dharma, to personally live the canons of Dharma and thus become an example of life -- perfect and par excellence for all mankind. The Ramayana, the celebrated story of Shri Rama, lists in its first chapter the glorious characteristics of Shri Ramachandra, whom the eminent sage Narada declares as the supreme jewel among the people. Rama's Name, His form and His conduct have been the object of constant remembrance, contemplation and emulation by people for centuries.The word "Rama" is interpreted in the Ramarahasyopanishad as the combination of the essence of the Narayana-Ashta-Akshara and the Shiva-Pañcha-Akshara, that is, "RA" and "MA", without which, the Ashtakshara and the Pañchakshara not only would they not have the proper meaning but they would have the opposite (Sri Swami Sivananda, 2017). The Rama-Nama is also considered as the essence of the thousand Names of the Lord. It is the Taraka Mantra, the “ship” that makes the mortals cross Samsara or death. The power of the Name is well understood when it is known that even the wrong pronunciation turned the delinquent Ratnakara into the sage Valmiki. Shri Rama is an object of meditation because he is the Avatar of Lord Vishnu, the Preserver of the universe. Shri Rama incarnated when the five planets were on their ascendant. The unique planetary condition suggests the glory of Shri Rama's life (Sri Swami Sivananda, 2017). The Dharma that one finds in Him is the best refuge. Read the Ramayana and you will understand the greatness of Shri Rama, the true Arya Purusha, the ideal son, the ideal brother, the ideal husband, the ideal king. Shri Rama lived human life in the most practical way possible, as a whole in its different aspects of social relationships firmly established in the Dharma, through His well-regulated personality and highly refined conduct. An ideal life can be lived on earth by following the guidance of this glorious leader of humanity, the true representative of the Supreme Divinity who manifested himself for the benefit of all subsequent generations (Sen, 2005). Ethics: Follow the Path of Righteousness The noblest lesson in the Ramayana is the supreme importance of virtue in the life of every human being. Virtue is the spiritual spark of life. The cultivation of virtue is the process of unfolding the latent divinity in man. The glorious incarnation of the supreme Truth, Shri Ramachandra, has set the example through His own life of how to follow the path of virtue. May humanity follow in His footsteps and practice the ideals that He valued, for only in this way can there be lasting peace, prosperity and well-being in this world in general and the corporate world in particular. No one but the virtuous can be truly happy. It cannot be said that someone lives with dignity except the one who has the correct sense of duty and the will to implement it. One must be imbued with a definite conviction about the supremacy of moral principles, ethical values, and spiritual ideals that should guide one's daily actions and serve as a powerful means for the cultivation of human personality (Sri Swami Sivananda, 2020). That is the purpose of life. That is the way to the purpose of the modern virtuous and prosperous Company (MUNIAPAN, 2007). An example of a successful company is the one that does what promotes harmony, goodwill and peace, and does not do what inspires the opposite effect. Do what is universally considered good, fair and appropriate, what is sure to produce positive effects, and do not do what generates negative results. That is the judgment criterion. This is how one should decide between right and wrong. Another example of a successful company is its virtue of being credible and not deviating from the path of truth. This is the very basis of a company that works ethically and considers the welfare of its employees (MUNIAPAN, 2007). A successful manager would one who eliminates what produces a negative reaction in others and reinforces what quickly generates a sense of well-being in him and others as well. But, at the same time does not get carried away by the euphoria of doing well and being good. It is not something special that is expected of you. It is your duty. The only way you can make tomorrow a better day is to think and do today what will lead to better tomorrow. Have an open heart and mind, but accept only what is good, appropriate, and worth remembering. Try to correct in yourself first what you dislike in others. Accept only what is good in others and ignore the rest. Your own happiness depends on how you conduct yourself. Don't complain about the circumstances. Try to make the best of everything. Spiritual aspirants, reflect, brood, analyze and reason about what should be the aspiration you should have and what not, what you should do and what you should abstain from. Think correctly. Speak sweetly and truthfully. Act honestly, fairly, and selflessly. Grow, evolve and improve like this every day, every moment. THE RAMAYANA HERO Lord Rama, the hero of the Ramayana is the Purushavatara of the Supreme Being who incarnated as the son of King Dasaratha of Ayodhya. He was the joy of his mother Kausalya and the very life of Dasaratha. True to the Lord's Purushavatara, Shri Rama's qualities of heart and head exemplified the summary of human perfection that man can achieve in life. His body was made of iron. His heart was tender and charming. His mind was flexible. Even as a child, he acquired such skill in archery that there were none to match him in firing arrows lightning fast and hitting the target unerringly (Sen, 2005). This is confirmed by Lord Krishna's statement in the Bhagavad Gita, when He explained His countless aspects to Arjuna, the Pandava prince: “Ramah Shastrabhritamaham- I am Shri Rama in the handling of arrows”. Although born and raised in an atmosphere of pleasure and fulfillment appropriate to his royal heritage, he cultivated great simplicity and Vairagya, which showed the philosophical bent of his mind and detachment from the ephemeral objects of the world. He was a "Jitendriya" who expressed, in every sense, a resolute mind and perfect control over the senses. However, he had a heart to feel for others in their sufferings and misfortunes, and he did everything possible to relieve them of their grief. Shri Rama fully translated into his own life the teachings of the Upanishads: "Matri Devo Bhava, Pitri Devo Bhava, Acharya Devo Bhava and Atithi Devo Bhava", fulfilling his duty towards his parents, showing great devotion to his Guru and providing hospitality and kindness to those in need. Note his bravery when, as a fifteen-year-old boy, he accompanied sage Visvamitra to the forest. He showed great courage by killing the two Rakshasas, Maricha and Subahu for the sole purpose of protecting the Dharma. Note his respect in the court of King Janaka when he raised the bow and broke it as proof to receive Sita's hand in marriage (Sen, 2005). Cultivate the qualities of selflessness and sacrifice that he displayed in fulfilling the wishes of his stepmother Kaikeyi by renouncing the kingdom and going to the forest in exile for fourteen years without the slightest feeling of offense or ill will towards anyone, much less towards Kaikeyi. The glory of renunciation, "Tyagenaike Amritatvamanasuh," as the Upanishads declare, is manifested in this act of Shri Rama. Observe once again Shri Rama's egalitarian view of friends and foes when he gave shelter to Vibhishana, knowing full well that Vibhishana had come to him from Ravana, the king of Lanka who was his staunch enemy, thus establishing his " Sharanagata Vatsalatva - quality of giving refuge to those who take refuge in him ”. Note their true friendship by fulfilling the promise he gave Sugriva, the king of the monkeys, to install him as king of Kishkindha after killing his brother Vali and that when he himself was in trouble, thus maintaining his composure even in adverse circumstances (Gombrich, 2005). Observe his cosmic love when he performed the last rites on Jatayu, the king of birds, who died from the wounds that Ravana inflicted on him with his saber when he tried to rescue Sita from the king of demons. A fact that is indicative of Rama's feeling of unity of all souls. Notice his kindness and magnanimity in giving Ravana three days of time on the battlefield, asking him to make up his mind to return Sita, even then, thus showing his willingness to forget and forgive all that has happened. Finally, notice his detached feelings even towards Sita for whom he had to go through many trials and tribulations in life. After the coronation, following his successful return from Lanka, he discovered that his beloved wife could not face criticism and public scandal, not because he did not trust her chastity but simply in the interests of the majority. Such was the glory of Shri Rama, the light of the Ikshvakus race. May God bless humanity to absorb the virtues of Shri Rama and put them into practice in their own lives, particularly in this iron age in which the Dharma has receded (Losty, 2008). THE IDEAL OF THE SUPREME DUTY Lord Rama is man's supreme ideal of Dharma, submission and discipline. He shone more for the adornment of his virtues than for his royal garb. His great personality and His blameless life of supreme dignity, compassion and righteousness are a perennial inspiration for humanity at all times. The kingdom of Rama has become immortal as a state par excellence, based on the ethical conduct of life. The secret of the glory of the kingdom of Rama was the conception of duty that dominated all other factors. The people of the time, from the highest, the Rama monarch, to the most humble and lowest, and the last of the citizens were governed by a sense of duty in every aspect of life, private or public. The Ramayana is imbued with this unique spirit. In this ideal Dharma, that could be observed in the golden age of the solar dynasty, Raghuvamsha, the most inspiring was that fervent desire to fulfill one's moral obligations and one's own duty, at any cost, in the interests of the Dharma and human welfare (Gombrich, 2005). As defender of the faith and protector of the saints, Dasaratha's subtle sense of duty caused him to put aside all consideration and send the two young princes, Rama and Lakshmana, to protect the Yajna from the Rishis in the Dandakaranya. The reaction of Queen Sumitra to Lakshmana's decision to follow Rama to the forest is full of that glorious concept of the supreme duty. Forgetting herself, she said, “O son, Lakshmana, consider Rama as your father Dasaratha, Janaki as myself (your mother), and the forest as the city of Ayodhya. Go son, go happily to the forest ” (Sen, 2005). And what did Lord Rama do? He put aside obligations to his loving mother, his brothers and the loving citizens of Ayodhya. Rama felt that at that time a son's greatest duty was to uphold his father's honor in the name of Truth and the cause of Dharma. His loyalty to this ideal was unconditional and foolproof. The divine Prince turned his back on the pleasures of the palace and the throne, and chose the dangers and hardships of the forest. Because He chose the path of duty, that is, He responded to the call of higher duty. Until the end we find this sublime ideal of duty and self-sacrifice. Rather than offend the conception of righteousness and virtue in the least of His subjects, The great king chose to inflict upon Himself the greatest torment and to put the noble Sita through the agonizing ordeal of separation and desolation in the jungle. Didn't Lakshmana have a duty towards noble Sita? He surely had it and was aware of it as well. But with the greatest pain he saw that the greatest duty was to obey his older brother and carry out his orders as king and ruler, who he knew was the embodiment of virtue and Dharma. The greatest and most moving manifestation of this great Ramayana ideal is the immortal Jatayu's offering of himself on the altar of supreme duty. He was in an uneven fight with the mighty Ravana. Jatayu could very well have avoided the conflict. It had nothing to do with Sita. He was not bound by any particular obligation. But Jatayu had risen from the soil of Bharatavarsha, from the depths of whose mother's heart rises the glorious maxim, “Paropakaaram Idam Shareeram” - this body is really meant to help others. The noble and courageous Jatayu responded to this unspoken call for this supreme duty of man - the duty to help others, to serve others, to control the Adharma, and to succor those who are in distress. This is the true life. This is the heroic life. Let faith fill you with strength to live such a life of adherence to supreme duty. May the Name of the Lord give you the power of self-sacrifice in the cause of the supreme Dharma. May the glorious example of the Ramayana ideal inspire all of you with soul force to lead a Divine Life of self-denial, sacrifice and service to all! Be brave in the fulfillment of Dharma and duty. Worship the ideal of Rama. Become like Him through a unique devotion to Him. May His Divine Grace lift you through Paropakara to the Parama-Dharma of the supreme Kaivalya Moksha! Om Shri Ramaya Namah! The Rule of Law The rule of law, which all democratic governments cherish, was the ideal of Rama Rajya. It was a formal ideal and, although in some respects highly puritan, did not lose sight of realism. He paid attention to the practical aspect and still defended some of the finer principles of government and of individual and social ethics. His concept of international relations was remarkably modern. Persuasion was attempted first and then the Vibhishana episode took place. Lanka was invaded, but it did not become a peripheral province of the Ayodhya kingdom. After the purpose of the war was accomplished, the people were set free under the rule of their own king. It was a magnanimous gesture and highly moralistic in its ideal. Only very democratic governments will be able to meet such an ideal even if it is not in such a short period (Pathak, Singh & Anshul, 2016). Ideal government The welfare of the subjects was the main consideration of the ruler. Nothing else mattered, not even the king's personal interests. The king's first duty was to see that the people were happy and content, that there was justice and the rule of law, that human considerations were not hampered by social distinctions, and that, above all, public opinion was allowed to exercise its full influence. Even in such remote times, it was understood that the best government is the one that governs the least. It is surprising to note that Shri Rama went to such an extreme of giving up his pregnant wife and banishing her to a hermitage, being that she was the queen and first lady of the kingdom, and all for the sake of what we could call today a symbolic opinion. But this indicates, above all, the way in which a ruler must conform to a strict standard of living and rigid personal conduct, not only as he would consider it ideal but as his subjects expect of him. Shri Rama's personal life and happiness were indeed secondary to the inflexible rules that governed his imperial life. It is extraordinary and surprising that such an ancient Indian kingdom has harbored and practiced such a meticulous sense of property and that its rulers have voluntarily submitted to it (Pathak, Singh & Anshul, 2016). Keep the lessons in mind Shri Rama's devotion to the ideal of monogamy, his refusal to marry again after leaving Sita, was truly magnificent, especially in a time when polygamy in the upper class was more the rule than the exception. There are numerous such lessons in the Ramayana. We also have the beautifully honest and selfless example of Urmila, Lakshmana's wife, to whom Valmiki does not pay much attention. Could a modern wife allow her husband to go into exile, voluntarily, for fourteen long years immediately after marriage, regardless of her personal interests and wishes, and only because of his sentimental attachment to his brother? Every page of this great book has a lesson in humanity. If modern man paid attention to at least some of them and if he had the determination, the courage and the strength to put them into practice, life on earth would be much better, happier, more peaceful, meaningful and justified (Losty, 2008). Conclusion: The RAMAYANA Lesson If something justifies life, it is the law of virtue. Virtue is not just a part of a moral code; It is the basic principle that sustains the purpose of life, makes one fulfill his responsibility as a unit of society, affirms the dignity of the human being and the dedication of man to the ideals of truth and justice, elevates him from everything whatever is vulgar, mean, bad or unfair. The Ramayana lesson is a perfect ideal for everyone. Simple yet glorious, normal and yet rarely followed, fundamentally human and still an agent of spiritual conversion. It is an ideal that has had a determining influence on the design of the structure of Hindu society and has always been an inspiring example worthy of emulation for all who are loyal to it (Pathak, Singh & Anshul, 2016). References Gombrich, R. F. (Ed.). (2005). Ramayana Book Four: Kishkindha (Vol. 4). NYU Press. Losty, J. P. (2008). The Ramayana: Love and Valour in India's Great Epic. British Library. MUNIAPAN, D. B. (2007) VALMIKI RAMAYANA AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP. Pathak, P., Singh, S., & Anshul, A. (2016). Modern Management Lessons from Ramayana. PURUSHARTHA-A journal of Management, Ethics and Spirituality, 9(1), 52-56. Sen, A. (2005). Ramayana: Book 1: Boyhood (Vol. 1). NYU Press. Sri Swami Sivananda (2017). Hindu Gods and Goddesses. Retrieved from Sri Swami Sivananda (2020). Significance of Ramnavami. Retrieved from -- Om Lalchandani.


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